Anthonia Duru a risk taker writes for Independent Newspapers Limited, she has special passion for women development and child development. Managing normal deliveries, recognising complications, and managing and referring patients with complications requires more knowledge, training, and oversight, as well as the ongoing experience that is gained from a regular caseload. Unfortunately at about 2am on a Friday, she had another baby boy. He said more awareness was being created about pregnancy-related problems as more health facilities and personnel were being improved in communities ravaged by the insurgents. There might be about 70 to 80 per cent chances that the pregnancy might be the cause but the remaining 20 per cent may not be. The child survival hypothesis states that if child mortality is reduced, then eventually fertility reduction follows, with the net effect of lower growth of population. WHO posits that if northern women had better control of their finances and were better educated, they would be empowered enough to make better decisions about their lives; this would invariably curtail maternal deaths and dangerous maternal complications. 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It is often necessary when the mother can’t deliver through virginal and medical experts often recommend this when the need arise. In Nasarawa, a source at the State’s Primary Healthcare Development Agency (NAPHCDA) said there are no available statistics on maternal mortality rates in the state. Though many won’t stop pointing accusing fingers at government for not providing good healthcare system, individuals chiefly contributes to why Nigeria records the third highest number of maternal-infant mortality in the world. One fifth of deliveries received help from a traditional midwife. “The bond scheme has provided more manpower at the downstream levels of healthcare and with the State Health Insurance Scheme taking off, with proper implementation, healthcare should be accessible and affordable by majority of the Benue populace when it fully kicks off and is running,” he said. Children born to minors are susceptible to malnutrition compared to married women later in life. With more than half the population of Kano State said to be living below the poverty belt, chances of having enough finance to consider proper healthcare is very minimal. This access is even worse in rural areas outside of the country's major cities. “We need to improve the number of mothers attending clinics and by so doing; we will improve our health care delivery,” he said. However, due to insecurity, health workers say the number has reduced by more than half. The study revealed that although the number of children dying before the age of five is at a new low – 5.6 million in 2016 compared to nearly 9.9 million in 2,000 — the proportion of under-five deaths in the newborn period has increased from 41 per cent to 46 per cent during the same period. According to WHO, many complications can occur in the first 24 hours. Dr. Emmanuel Daodu, Chief Medical Director of Gladtiddings Medical Centre, Lagos in a chat with SATURDAY INDEPENDENT estimates that 30 to 40 per cent of infant deaths could be averted by maternal interventions alone. Governor Abdullahi Ganduje had during the 2020 Primary Healthcare Summit held in Kano, said they were  perfecting plans to establish a Primary Healthcare Center in each of 484 wards of the state. We have a poor human resource for health. There are 17 per cent of births that happen without any help. He said another challenge contributing to high maternal mortality was the attitude of health workers to pregnant women, stressing that there are several cases where health workers treat pregnant women badly and hence, discourage them from visiting health facilities. In the past, infant maternal mortality is attributed to many factors chief of which is African traditional belief on Abiku, post partum hemorrhage, unsafe abortion, infection, high blood pressure during pregnancy, hypertensive disease of pregnancy and obstructed labour and some other beliefs. “A woman cannot even eat till her husband gives her money to buy food, and how much is that money? Speaking on the increasing rate of maternal mortality in the country, the Programme and Communication Officer, Resource Centre for Human Rights and Civic Education, Mr Armsfree Ajanaku said, from their experience as an organization that has been working to mitigate the devastating impact of scourge of maternal and child health in Nigeria, they have observed a number of factors contributing to the situation. But in a region where the majority of the people are poor and struggling to eat, the finance to consider check-ups, vitamins and proper healthcare will remain a myth. If they don’t follow that routine, they may die. Among these are poverty, malaria, malnutrition, undeveloped infrastructure, and poor health facilities conditions. Bello then tasked the Ministry of Health and health workers to work towards reducing the indices, adding that he is uncomfortable with the high indices of maternal and infant mortality rate in the state. She Is Too Secretive, Do You Think She Is Having An Affair? These are India (24 per cent), Pakistan (10 per cent), Nigeria (9 per cent), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (4 per cent) and Ethiopia (3 per cent). The joy that came after 13 years of painstaking waiting ended up bringing calamity and trauma to the husband, who could not comprehend what went wrong. In view of the ticking population bomb the opinion can be submitted that high child mortality and repeated famines reduce the growth of population. On the availability and accessibility of health facilities for people especially at the grassroots in Nasarawa State, he said it has over 770 PHCs and 18 General Hospitals spread across the 13 LGAs, adding that every ward has at least one PHC center or is close to one, which he said  are “pretty accessible.”. Nigeria still has high prevalence of mortalities reflected in infants and children amongst others [5,6,7]. According to Daodu, “If the birth was at a facility, mother and baby should receive a postnatal examination before discharge. With the registered office at 8, WEMPCO Road, Ogba, Ikeja, it publishes DAILY INDEPENDENT, Monday – Friday, SATURDAY Independent, SUNDAY Independent with online properties... © 2001 - 2021. In countries where infant mortality is high, several factors are attributed to necessitating these deaths. The source said that the causes or factors leading to high maternal mortality in Nigeria generally are categorized into two namely, medical and non medical factors. “In the first place, the poor governance of the Primary Healthcare Sector is a major issue. However… According to Yetunde, she must have been cursed by some ‘enemies’ who never wish her well. The UNICEF Chief of Health, Stefan Peterson, said though the lives of 50 million children under-five have been saved since 2,000 through increased level of commitment by governments and development partners to tackle preventable child deaths, more still need to be done to stop babies from dying the day they are born, or days after their birth. When a woman loses her child, whether it be a baby who died in the womb or a child who died after birth, a part of her dies as well. In 2020, Daily Trust profiled a group of women in the Gwammaja area of Kano State, who had identified some of these problems around them. The report showed that 15,000 children died globally before their fifth birthday in 2016, with 46 per cent of the deaths, (7,000) occurring in the first 28 of life. According to him, more funds would be committed to uplifting the health status of the state. “Another challenge is that motorcyclists no longer go to the villages because the bandits usually attack and kill them and then steal their motorcycles; and so, the women lack a means of transportation,” the health official added. 139. According to him, the death rate is higher in rural areas due to poor access to health facilities and the fact that patients had to travel long distances. October 20, 2017 . However, they have not been effective in reducing mortality during childbirth. “A situation where a pregnant woman is bleeding and she has B.P., she needed magnesium sulphate but if they don’t have the money to buy it, then, such a woman could die,” he said. Daily Trust, in this report, examines some of the factors responsible for this ugly trend. In Nasarawa, a source at the State's Primary Healthcare Development Agency (NAPHCDA) said there are no available statistics on maternal mortality rates in the state. Kindly Share This Story • Dr. It is also a powerful brake on accelerated progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Also, some don’t even have the money to transport themselves to the hospitals for care. They are all tied to one thing – the maternal health. Maternal and infant mortality is a tragedy that is still very rampant in Nigeria due to a number of factors in the nation's health care system. “We will be lucky to see 30 women these days because they fear that bandits may ambush them on their way to Galadimawa because it is the only active PHC in the ward headquarters,” said a health worker. Why Nigeria Has The Third Highest Maternal, Infant Mortality Rate. There are many reasons why maternal mortality in Nigeria is so high, including a lack of access to healthcare, rampant poverty, substandard health care and the prevalence of child marriage. By Anthonia Duru On Dec 2, 2017 12:00 AM. He however said that experienced midwives and traditional birth attendants in the villages have assisted in several deliveries. In 2019, the infant mortality rate in Singapore was approximately 1.7 deaths per 1,000 live births. The Nigerian Minister of Health, Isaac Adewole, had described the high mortality rate of under-five in the country as unacceptable. Also, Dr Josiah Ikwulono, a senior Medical Officer currently working at the General Hospital, Adikpo in Kwande Local Government area of the state listed poverty among issues that lead to high maternal mortality in Benue State. All Rights Reserved. Dr Joseph Ngbea, who was recently sworn into office as the State’s Commissioner for Health and Human Services, explains that majorly, the ‘three delay model’ remain the commonest factors which contribute to pregnant women dying at the point of delivery. While medical experts at the summit  said they were impressed with the projects and programmes already executed by the Ganduje government towards providing adequate healthcare service delivery in the state, the Minister for Health, Osagie Ehanire said he believed Kano had efficient human resources to meet the universal healthcare coverage needs. He said the government has, however, made significant progress in reducing the rate of newborn deaths in the country as it has declined from 201/1000 live births to 128/1000 live birth in 2013. In 2019, infant mortality rate for Nigeria was 74.2 deaths per thousand live births. And in 2015, mortality ratio for Nigeria was 814 deaths per 100,000 live births. Speaking in Yenagoa recently during the Bayelsa Reproductive Maternal Child and Adolescent Health (RMNCAH), Commissioner for Health, Dr Newton Igwele, expressed concern over the maternal mortality rate after receiving the  scorecard for the third quarter of 2020 presented by the state team in collaboration with the United Nations International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF). Mr Ajanaku said many Nigerians in urban centres take some of these things for granted, but in the rural areas, “they are luxuries, which are hard to come by.”. Why Infant Mortality Is High In Nigeria – UNICEF Posted by biofemhotspot on August 27, 2016 UNICEF’s Chief of Field Office in charge of Katsina and Kano States, Padmavathi Yedla, has explained that the solutions to high infant mortality rate in Nigeria are not expensive but they are not properly observed because social norms are opposed to them. The government said the launch was in line with its determination to reduce incidences of maternal and infant mortality in the state. He maintained that while all of these, interwoven with the three levels of delays explain the high incidence of maternal mortality in Benue localities, the availability and accessibility of health services in the state continues to improve on regular basis. Chizoba went into labour but did not come out alive, neither did her baby. This sad reality is mainly due to sheer lack of medical facilities. “This is why I have approved the training and recruitment of more staff, we will employ more staff so that we will bit have to overwork the few doctors and nurses we have”, he explained. Independent Newspapers Nigeria. Inadequate PHCs, illiteracy fuel maternal mortality in Benue. (Reuters) UNICEF says one in 34 babies born in Nigeria die before their first birthday. Where will they now get money for drugs if there is no money to eat?” Hajiya Tanko asked. Substantial presence of Acute Respiratory Infections and diarrhoea also contribute to the elevated mortality rates for children. “I have seen instances where I confirmed women to be pregnant and when counselled for ante natal, they will abruptly tell you that they have no money to attend ante natal clinic and they are right. All rights reserved. The weaknesses of a Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA) lie in harmful traditional practices, which may have harmful effects for her clients; unhygienic practices and inexistence of the referral system. The women had complained that there were no doctors available for them, and the centres were not conducive for births neither were they open for 24 hours, hence, births that come at night pose a serious risk to mother and child. “It is not enough. “Most depend on their husbands to decide for them, who also may not have enough funds to provide adequate healthcare for them. It has been widely reported that the United States has a relatively high infant mortality rate compared with other developed countries: More than 23,000 American infants died in 2014, or about 6 for every 1,000 live births, putting us on par with countries like Serbia and Malaysia. In Northern Nigeria, many women die from pregnancy-related complications as many reports have exposed. They generally do not carry a regular caseload and do not therefore have the opportunity to build the experience of a nurse or midwife. In April 2017, a young graduate, Yetunde Akilede delivered a baby boy at a private hospital located at Igando area of Lagos but the baby had some complications, he was referred to Alimosho General Hospital in Lagos for specialist care after battling unsuccessfully to save the baby for about four hours by the pediatrics on duty who promptly attended to the baby, the baby died. She once again concluded that some unseen forces are behind her predicament. She added that same goes for child-immunisation. “Women and their relatives simply had no money to invest in antenatal care, or for safe deliveries in reputable hospitals. In Benue State, experts have attributed high maternal mortality rates in the state largely to inadequate and ill-equipped Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities; illiteracy and poverty among others. Drake’s ‘Certified Lover Boy’ For Release On 21st of January? How COVID-19 worsens Nigeria’s high infant mortality rate. These cases could not have ended in disaster with proper, and readily available pre and post natal care. While infant morality rate is the rate children die at birth or shortly after birth. Early marriage, which is also very rampant in Northern Nigeria, is considered one of the major contributors to maternal health complications with the WHO estimating that most complications come from pregnant teens. He said they have situations, especially in rural areas, where equipment as basic as beds, thermometers, and blood pressure monitors are not available in PHCs resulting in patients being treated without the right indices. Published August 23, 2020 August 23, 2020. Infant mortality rate of Nigeria fell gradually from 166.8 deaths per thousand live births in 1970 to 74.2 deaths per thousand live births in 2019. “Some people’s placenta will not come out after delivery. Nigerian women are also said to be 500 times more likely to lose their lives in childbirth when compared to most advanced nations of the world. Poverty is also a major cause of maternal mortality, as it prevents many women from getting proper and adequate medical attention due to their inability to afford good antenatal care. “Among us, some died while giving birth or their children will die because some husbands will say they do not have money to take them to the hospital, and that was why we had to do something to help our members, so that nobody will be dying anyhow,” Hajiya Tanko said. Chart and table of the Nigeria infant mortality rate from 1950 to 2021. Diarrhea is normally a symptom of a tougher disease like cholera, dysentery, and many others. “I heard of a woman who developed ante partum hemorrhage but there was no money to take her to hospital. Daily Trust gathered that from the Primary Healthcare facility in Galadimawa of Giwa Local Government Area in Kaduna State that as many as 90 pregnant women crowd the facility from surrounding villages for ante-natal every Wednesday being the market day. In Kano, most PHCs available to women merely exist in name but lack adequate personnel and facilities. Currently, Nigeria is the highest contributor to maternal mortality in Central and Western Africa and contributes 14% to the global maternal mortality rate. According to new reports from the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF), nearly ten per cent of newborn deaths in the world last year occurred in Nigeria. He said the scorecard was an eye-opener that the state still had a lot to do in the area of healthcare delivery. Data obtained from the Borno State government showed that 344 maternal deaths were recorded at health facilities in 2020 out of which 94 were deaths relating to pregnancies. Chizoba (her husband does not want her last name disclosed) had been married for 13 years without any child, but died when she became pregnant. Afghanistan has the highest infant mortality rate in the world, with 110.6 deaths per 1,000 children 5 years old and younger. “That was how the woman bled to death at home. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the MMR of Nigeria is 814 deaths (per 100,000 live births). = 2; P > 0.05 Source: Child file subset of Ondo State Demographic and Health Survey (ODHS) data tape. At the same rate of growth there will be 14 billion people by 2025. Others may exist before pregnancy but worsen during pregnancy. “Non-medical factors are manpower shortage (skilled birth attendants); delay in seeking care; delay in reaching points of care; delay in referrals; cultural beliefs/ practices; poverty; lack of equipment/medications/blood; failure to recognize danger signs and inadequate power supply. But Dr Bunmi Omosehindemi, Chairman, Lagos State Traditional Medicine Board explains reasons  why many still patronise them. Several factors are said to be responsible for maternal mortality in Kaduna State and the challenges range from poor human resources to unavailability of drugs for pregnant women and insecurity, which hinders pregnant women from accessing antenatal care and delivery services. The strength they say lies in the fact that she is part of the cultural and social life of the immediate community in which she lives. Nigeria has third highest infant mortality rate in the world – WHO. Curbing the high rate of infant and maternal mortality in Nigeria.. According to Jumare, “Sometimes, the women could come for antenatal three or four times but when it’s time for the actual childbirth, they stay at home and sometimes there could be complications; there could be postpartum hemorrhage which could lead to death. Nigeria's Health minister, Isaac Oduwole says the government is opening many more health facilities across the country. “Also, women should always follow their doctors’ advice and check their blood pressures regularly while pregnant.”. “You will find that intravenous fluids are also lacking in some facilities,” he said. Infant mortality, according to Wikipedia, refers to deaths of young children, typically, those less than one year of age. That's on par with Croatia — a country with a GDP a third of the size of the U.S. economy. Few weeks after, Yetunde took in and this time around she decided not to take chances, she registered in a private hospital, she goes from one prayer house to the other just to ensure that there is no reoccurrence of what happened in the past. “Many people are opting for traditional birth attendants because it has to do with the culture of the people and also inadequate medical facilities we have in the nation. Most other developed countriesas geographically diverse as Japan, Finland, Australia and Israelhave lower rates, closer to 2 or 3 deaths out of every 1,000. In 2019, the infant mortality rate in Nigeria was at about 74.2 deaths per 1,000 live births. DON'T BE A VICTIM! Maternal mortality refers to women who lose their lives during pregnancy or while giving birth. Sadly many children and mother end up dying in the hands of unskilled doctors who undertake these operations or due to infections. Also, obstructed labour and other diseases have to some extent contributed in the death of women during child birth. Independent Newspapers Limited, registered on July 17, 2001 (RC No: 419927), commenced publication on October 1, 2001. “Many TBAs are received training on safer birth practices, including clean delivery and avoidance of harmful practices. This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the probability of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births. He urged the government and stakeholders in the health sector to look deeply into the PHCs and make available facilities and human capital needed to make them function well to enable pregnant women have access to quality healthcare services at the grassroots to reduce the rate of maternal deaths recorded yearly. It was another bitter pill for her to swallow as she couldn’t comprehend why she has to go through the horrific experience again for the second time in a year. In Nigeria, the childhood mortality rate stands at 128 per 1000 live births, with large disparities in her different regions . A senior heath official said poor nutrition among thousands of women displaced by insurgency as well as hypertensive disorders were part of the factors that led to increased maternal mortality in the state. The source said that the causes or factors leading to high maternal mortality in Nigeria generally are categorized into two namely, medical and non-medical factors. The lifetime risk of a Nigerian woman dying during pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum or post-abortion is one in 22, in contrast to the lifetime risk in developed countries estimated at 1 in 4,900. We have about 100 nurses to about 100, 000 patients and about two lab scientists to 100, 000 patients. (1). COVID-19: Malami orders NDLEA to halt screening of 5,000 candidates, COVID-19 cases continue to surge as Nigeria records 1,964 new infections, Armed men disrupt Bayelsa council lawmakers’ sitting, Child without anus yet to undergo surgery —Father, Benue court orders WAEC to release 52 candidates’ results, We need people-oriented constitution – Nwodo, Set up technical committee for restructuring – NRF, Arresting the impending collapse of education, 20 P.O.W Mafemi Crescent, Utako District, Abuja. 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